Make your own free website on Tripod.com

العدد الخامس

في هذا العدد

Viral haemorrhagic fever group
[ Rift Valley Fever ( RVF)]

الحمى النـزفيه (حمى الوادي المتصدع)

FASTING

الصــيــام

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION WARNING ON PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE

منظمة الغذاء و الدواء تحذر من استخدام عقارفينيل بروبانول أمين

Potassium bromate, a food additive to avoid برومات البوتاسيوم من المواد الحافظة التي يجب تجنبها

Viral haemorrhagic fever group[ Rift Valley Fever ( RVF)]

This group includes Rift Valley fever, Ebola, Lassa fever, Marburg haemorrhagic fever and Dengue fever.

Rift valley fever is a zoonosis (a disease which primarily affects animals, but occasionally causes disease in humans). It may cause sever disease in both animals and humans, leading to a high morbidity and mortality, and exacting substantial economic costs from loss of livestock.

People can get RVF from the bite of mosquitoes and possibly other blood sucking insects. The virus lies dormant in the eggs of Aedes mosquitoes. During heavy rains and floods, the eggs hatch large numbers of infected mosquitoes that feed on livestock and spread the virus. People can get RVF if they are exposed to the blood or other body fluids of injected animals. This can happen during the slauphtering or handling of infected animals or during the preparation of food or from the ingestion of raw milk. The virus may be inhaled through airborne transmission during work with virus cultures or laboratory samples containing the virus.

Clinical Picture: The incubation period varies from two to six days. Infected people have an influenza-like illness with fever, headache, weakness, myalgia, backache, and photophobia. They usually get better in two days to one week after the start of the illness. A small proportion of patients develops a much more severe disease and this appears as a haemorrhagic phenomena, such as vomiting blood, epistaxis, melena, purpuric rashes, ecchymosis and bleeding from the gum. The total case fatality rate is less than 1%.

Diagnosis: The diagnosis of acute RVF by serological tests such as enzyme-linked immuno sorbant assay (ELISA) may demonstrate the presence IgM antibodies to the virus. The virus itself may be detected in blood or tissues by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Treatment: Most human cases of RVF are relatively mild and of short duration, so will not require any specific treatment. For the most severe cases, the mainstay of treatment is a general supportive therapy. The antiviral drug ribavirin is being studied for its effectiveness against RVF.

Prevention and control: No licensed vaccine or virus-killing medicine is

available for human use. Persons who work with animals in areas where the virus is present should avoid exposure to the blood or tissues of potentially infected animals.Other approached to the control of disease involve protection from and control of mosquito vectors. Individuals should wear protective clothing, use bed nets and insect repellent and avoid outdoor activity at peak-biting time of the vector species.

    Reference:

http://www.astdhpphe.org/infect/rift.htmlDec.1998

FASTING

 

   The body needs a periodic rest from chemicals and toxins that are in the environment. Fasting is an effective and safe method of detoxifying the body. It helps clean the liver and the kidneys, purify the body, cleanse the colon, lose unnecessary weight, get rid of toxins built up in the tissues, clear the eyes and the tongue, cleanse the breath and lose excess water. A three-day fast helps the body get rid of toxins, a five-day fast starts the healing process and a ten-day fast should take care of most problems before they arise.

   Ramadan is the month of fasting in Moslem societies. In addition to the previous benefits of fasting, there are many recommendation that should be followed during fasting in Ramadan:

*Eating and drinking without excess to avoid stomach troubles.

*Beginning Ramadan breakfast with dates or water if the first one is not available.

*Taking Ramadan breakfast in two steps, the first one on dates or water and the second one after praying to avoid any load on the stomach.

*Choosing healthy food and avoiding salty or spicy food.

*For constipated people, increasing excess fibers in food is recommended.

*Avoidance of rapid sleeping after eating.

*Ramadan is a good chance to stop smoking with its all hazards.

*Avoidance of anxiety, tension and angry during fasting.

*Training children on fasting gradually and kindly without enforcing them to help them avoid hating fasting.

*For pregnant and lactating women, if allowed to fast, they should have excess food divided into two meals and rich in protein and carbohydrates and little in fat, with excess water content.

*Many patients with gastric troubles feel better during fasting. These patients should take their food divided into several small meals and avoid spicy, salty and fatty food.

*Many cardiac patients feel better during fasting as fasting gives rest to their hearts because 10% of blood from the heart goes to the gastrointestinal system during duration digestion of food. These patients should avoid hard work, spicy, salty and fatty food.

*Renal patients with calculi, if allowed to fast, should take excess fluid and avoid certain types of food, which may increase the formation of stone.

*Diabetic patients, if allowed to fast, should follow the instructions of their doctors properly, avoid hard work and if they feel any of the symptoms of hypoglycemia, they should stop fasting immediately.

    Reference:

    http://www.tadawi.com/htm/ramathantr.htm 

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION WARNING ON PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE

  Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is taking steps to remove Phenylpopanolamine (PPA) from all drug products and has requested that all drug companies discontinue marketing products containing PPA.

Food and Drug Administration today issued a public health advisory concerning the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (Stroke is characterized by either bleeding in the brain because of ruptured vessel or impaired blood flow to a part of the brain when a vessel is blocked by a clot) associated with Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride.

Phhenylpropanolamine is an ingredient used in many Over The Counter (OTC) and prescription cough and cold medications as a decongestant and in OTC weight loss product.

Adverse events reported with these products led to concerns that this ingredient might increase the risk of hemorrhagic strokes. Manufactures of products containing PPA worked with FDA to plan a research program to clarify whether any increase in risk exist.

Scientist at Yale University School of Medicine conducted the study in which the researchers found an association between PPA use and stroke in women. The increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke was detected among women using the drug for weight control, and for nasal decongestion, in the 3 days after starting use of the medication. Men may also be at risk. FDA’s Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee reviewed Yale’s results and concluded that PPA cannot be considered to be safe for continued use.

Reference:

http://www.verity.fda.gov

Potassium bromate, a food additive to avoid

potassium bromate has long been used to increase the volume of bread with a fine crumb structure.

Most bromate rapidly breaks to form innocuous bromide. The tiny amount of bromate that may remain in bread pose a risk to consumer.

Potassium bromate is a white odorless and tasteless crystal or powder. It is an extremely toxic agent that produces nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, deafness, acute renal failure, central nervous system depression and hemolysis. A number of case reports of acute poisoning by potassium bromate have been reported.

Potassium bromate produces lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage in rat kidney. There is also evidence that it increases the amount of alpha 2u- globulin in rat kidney. The available data including evidence of genetic toxicity, indicate, however that potassium bromate causes renal tumour (adenomas and carcinomas) and thyroid follicular tumour in animals, through mechanism involving oxidative damage.

Potassium bromate is possibly carcinogenic to human after longterm or repeated exposure.

Bromate have been banned in numerous countries, including the United Kingdom in 1990 and Canada in 1994. Backed goods sold in California would have to bear a cancer warning if they contained more than a certain level of bromate. As a result, most California bakers have switched to bromate-free processes.

The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) advises consumers to avoid bread, roll, doughnuts, and cakes that list (potassium bromate) or (bromate flour) among their ingredients.

References:

*Ellonhorn's Medical Toxicology,1997.

http://www.cspinet.org/new/bromate.html 

الحمى النـزفيه (حمى الوادي المتصدع)

يعتبر مرض حمى الوادي المتصدع من الأمراض النـزفيه التي تصيب الماشية أساساً ولكن من الممكن أن تصيب الإنسان أيضاً. ينتقل المرض عن طريق البعوض حيث إن الفيروس المسبب للمرض يكون موجوداً بصورة كائنة في بيض البعوض ومع موسم الأمطار يفقس البيض ويؤدي إلى انتشار كمية كبيرة من البعوض الحامل للمرض والذي يتغذى على دم الماشية ويقوم بنشر الفيروس. وينتقل الفيروس للإنسان إذا تعرض الإنسان إلى دم أو أي سوائل أخرى من الحيوانات المصابة ويظهر المرض بعد يومين إلى ستة أيام من الإصابة في صورة أعراض تتشابه مع أعراض الإنفلونزا حيث يشتكي المريض من ارتفاع في درجة الحرارة وصداع وضعف عام وĭلام في العضلات ثم يشفى في خلال فترة تتراوح بين يومين وأسبوع ، نسبة ضئيلة من المرضى تظهر عليهم أعراض نزفية في صورة قيء دموي ونزيف من الأنف ونقط نزفية تحت الجلد ونزيف من اللثة وفي أماكن متعـددة من الجسم. ولحسن الحظ تعتبر نسبة الوفاة من هذا المرض قليلة حيث تبلغ أقل من 1%. لا يوجد علاج خاص ضد فيروس حمى الوادي المتصدع ويتركز العلاج علي علاج الأعراض والعناية الخاصة بالحالات الشديدة كما لا يوجد مصل خاص لهذا الفيروس حتى الآن وتتركز الوقاية والمقاومة في القضاء على البعوض والتعامل بحرص مع الحيوانات المصابة.

الصــيــام

يعتبر الصيام من الطرق الفعـالة والآمـنة لتخليص الجسم من السموم فهو يؤدي إلى تنظيف الكبد والكلى والدم والقولون وكذلك الأنسجة المختلفة من السموم كما يؤدي إلى تطهير العـين واللسـان وفقد الوزن الزائد والمياه الزائـدة عن حـاجـة الجسـم . و صيام رمـضان لـه كثير من الفوائد الروحية والنفسية والجسـدية ولكـن هناك بعض الإرشادات الصحية التي يجب إتباعها في هذا الشهر ومنها أن المرضى الذين يسمح لهم بالصيام في رمضان مثل بعض مرضى القلب والكلى والسكر وعسر الهضم أن يتبعوا إرشادات أطبائهم وأن يحافظوا على نفس كمية ونوعية الغذاء الذي يوصف لهم (التفاصيل بالإنجليزية).

منظمة الغذاء و الدواء تحذر من استخدام عقارفينيل بروبانول أمين

أتخذت منظمة الغذاء و الدواء بعض الخطوات لسحب عقار الفينيل بروبانول أمين من منتجات الأدوية كما طالبت الشركات بوقف تسويق المنتجات المحتوية على هذا العقار ، وذلك بعد أن أثبتت الأبحاث أن استخدام هذا العقار بالجرعات العلاجية خلال الثلاثة الأيام الأولى ربما يزيد من خطورة السكتة الدماغية خصوصا عند النساء .

إن عقار الفينيل بروبانول أمين هو أحد مكونات الأدوية التي تصرف بدون وصفة طبية لعلاج الكحة و نزلات البرد واحتقان الأنف و إنقاص الوزن .

برومات البوتاسيوم من المواد الحافظة التي يجب تجنبها

تستخدم برومات البوتاسيوم لزيادة حجم وتحسين مذاق الخبز وهي تعتبر من المواد السامة جدا″ فهي تؤدي في حالات التسمم الحاد إلى قيء وإسهال وفشل كلوي وتكسير في كرات الدم الحمراء . وقد أجريت بعض الدراسات على الفئران وأظهرت أن برومات البوتاسيوم تؤدي إلى أورام سرطانية في الكلى والغدة الدرقية. ويوجد احتمال كبير بأن هذه المادة تؤدي إلى سرطان في الإنسان عند تعرضه لها لفترة طويلة. لذلك توصي بعض المراكز العلمية والبحثية بتجنب أكل المخبوزات التي تحتوي على برومات البوتاسيوم.

قائمة العدد الخامس